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Full text of "Bulletin of the Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology"

BULLETIN OF 

THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM 

OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO, MARCH, 1932 



No. 11 




GOLD AND IVORY STATUETTE FROM CRETE 
FIRST QUARTER OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY, B.C. 



Issued by the University of Toronto 



CRETAN STATUETTE IN GOLD AND IVORY 



The Museum has recently acquired a 
unique statuette of gold and ivory, 
believed to come from Cnossos in 
Crete, and dated by Sir Arthur Evans 
to the first quarter of the sixteenth 
century B.C. The figure is of such 
importance that it seemed worth 
devoting a complete number of the 
bulletin to it and to the civilization 
which produced it. 

The statuette represents a matronly 
figure wearing the dress characteris- 
tic of ancient Cretan athletes, the 
"Libyan sheath" (an elaboration 
of the primitive loin cloth) and a 
heavy gold band around the waist. 
It is possible that this band was 
fixed around the waists of Minoan 
boys and constricted them so as to 
make further growth of this part 
impossible, much as the feet of 
Chinese ladies are constricted. Old 
men appear to have discarded the 
band, which would have been un- 
comfortable for the abdominal ex- 
pansion of advancing years. In 
addition our figure wears a bodice of 
open goldwork carried by straps pass- 
ing over the shoulders. About her 
throat is a necklace apparently of a 
pattern resembling that of a Minoan 
necklace of similar date already in the 
collection (fig. 3). Her hair is kept 
in place in front by a golden "snood"; 
at the back it falls down freely over 
her shoulders; above the snood it is 
rolled up and then confined by a 
second golden band. This gold band 
as well as the back of the first one 
have unfortunately been lost, but the 
grooves where they were set can be 
seen clearly. The arms are out- 
stretched; the significance of this 
gesture will be discussed later. For 
comparison with the Toronto figurine, 
photographs are reproduced in figs. 4 
and 5 of the two other most important 
Cretan statuettes of the same date — 



the finest period of Bronze Age art. 
The gold and ivory goddess in the 
Boston Museum holds in her out- 
stretched arms two golden snakes to 
show that she is^the Lady of^the 



% 







FIG. 2. SIDE VIEW OF FIGURINE, 
ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM, TORONTO 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF AR( 1 1 AFOLOGY 



Underworld ; the arms of the statuette 
in the Fitzwilliam Museum, at Cam- 
bridge, England, are laid upon her 
breasts to indicate her character as 
the great Mother Goddess. Both 
these figures wear the long flounced 
skirt which was the usual dress of 
women in the Late Bronze Age in 
Crete and in both of them divinity is 
indicated not only by the position of 
the hands but also by the headdress; 
the Fitzwilliam statuette wears a tall 
headdress which only appears on the 
heads of goddesses; the Boston god- 
dess is crowned with a tiara of gold. 



Our figure is in remarkably good 
preservation, the sole additions being 
the following: (1) a little plaster at 
the bottom of the thighs to attach a 
few fragments; (2) a right arm carved 
in ivory coloured wood ; this had to 
be made in order to attach the deli- 
cate right hand; and (3) one modern 
gold nail to hold the right corner of 
the diadem to the head. The original 
height is calculated to have been 
about 10 inches (25.6 centimetres). 
Before considering the position of the 
Toronto figurine in relation to her 
two rivals it may be advisable to 




FIG. 3. MINOAN GOLD NECKLACE, ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM, TORONTO 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



discuss in greater detail the Bronze 
Age Civilization of Crete and the 
stones about it told by the later 
Greeks. 

The Greek legends recorded that 
Minos, king of Crete, ruled over the 
coasts and islands of the Aegean; 
he suppressed piracy and gave his 




FIG. 4. GOLD AND IVORY STATUETTE 
IN THE MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, BOSTON 

people laws which, like Moses, he had 
received from the divinity himself 
upon the summit of a lofty mountain. 
At his court lived Daedalus, the 
master craftsman, who built for his 
master the first mechanical man, a 
robot of bronze to patrol the coasts of 
Crete, but later Daedalus incurred 
the anger of his king and was cast 



into prison. Then Daedalus made 
wings for himself and his son Icarus 
and fled by air to Italy; but Icarus 
flew too near the sun and the wax in 
his wings melted so that he fell into 
the sea. But there was a darker side 
to these bright memories of Cretan 
rule. Minos kept in a maze within 
his palace a savage beast called the 
Minotaur, w^hich demanded human 
victims; and every year at the king's 
order the city of Athens had to send 
a tribute of seven noble youths and 
seven maidens. These were put into 
the maze to wander helplessly until 
the Minotaur found and devoured 
them. At last Theseus, son of the 
king of Athens, persuaded his father 
to let him go to Crete as one of the 
yearly victims, and at Cnossos the 
king's daughter, Ariadne, fell in love 
with him and gave him a ball of 
thread to unwind behind him as he 
wandered in the maze and a sword 
with which he killed the Minotaur. 
Then he fled, taking Ariadne with 
him, but deserted her on the island 
of Naxos and returned to Athens 
alone. The story as the later Greeks 
imagined it to have happened is 
illustrated by the coins of Cnossos, 
which sometimes have as their reverse 
types the maze, which the Greeks 
called the labyrinth, or the Minotaur, 
shown as the Greeks imagined him to 
have been, a monstrous creature half 
man and half bull (fig. 6). It is, 
however, only in the present century 
that it has been realized that the 
legends underestimated instead of 
exaggerated the splendours of the 
reign of Minos and that the exploit of 
Theseus has been shown to have a 
historical basis. 

In 1900 Sir Arthur Evans began to 
excavate the site of the palace of 
Minos and, except during the war, 
each succeeding year has brought new 
discoveries. It is from his publication 
of the Cnossian finds that most of the 
following remarks as well as many 
of the illustrations in this article are 
taken. In the Neolithic and Bronze 
Ages Crete was the most civilized 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



place in Europe. Although this 

civilization was in many ways in- 
debted to Egypt and Mesopotamia, 
Crete did not merely imitate those 
countries, and by the middle of the 
second millennium had surpassed 
them. The Bronze Age period has 
been divided into three stages, called 
Early, Middle and Late Minoan after 
the great ruler who is recorded in the 
Greek legends. The Early period 
(3400-2200 B.C.) saw the rise of 
culture in the island consequent on 
the introduction of metallurgy, prob- 
ably from Egypt. In the Middle 
Minoan period great palaces arose in 
the Cretan cities. Beautiful pottery 
was produced and painted in a variety 
of brilliant colours; writing was in 
general use and elaborate seals were 
made for the signature of documents. 
At this time the various cities were 
probably independent; perhaps the 
most important was still Phaestos on 
the south side of the island which, 
owing to its closer connection with 
Egypt, was at first ahead of its 
northern rival Cnossos. These two 
cities were connected by a road 
running across the island. During 
this time Cretan culture began to 
spread to the Greek mainland and it 
was perhaps this shifting of the 
balance of trade which gave the 
advantage to Cnossos. Twice during 
this period Crete was shaken by great 
earthquakes but the second one did 
not affect the south side of the island, 
which has always enjoyed com- 
parative freedom in this respect; this 
shock took place early in the 16th 
century and Phaestos appears to have 
escaped, although the Cnossian palace 
was partially destroyed. The Late 
Minoan period, which begins in 1580, 
seems to have been marked by the 
rise of Cnossos to a dominating posi- 
tion among the other Cretan cities, 
and to the next two centuries belong 
the greatest period of Crete. But the 
mainland cities were also gaining in 
power. These were not the palaces 
of wide-ruling emperors but strong 
fortresses held by warlike barons. It 



is still uncertain whether they were 
ruled by Cretans sent out by Minos 
or, as appears at present more prob- 
able, by proto-Greek dynasties which 
had spontaneously adopted the 
superior Minoan culture. Un- 

corrupted by the luxury of a great 
court, hardened bv continuous 




FIG. 5. STONE STATUETTE OF A GODDESS 

IN THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM, CAMBRIDGE, 

ENGLAND 



struggles against the savage mountain 
clans and probably with each other, 
the Mycenaeans began to cast envious 
eyes on Crete whose domination, if 
we may believe the legends, was often 
harsh and who in any case blocked 
the way to the lucrative Egyptian 
trade. About 1400 B.C. the chance 
came with the failure of a Cretan 
punitive expedition against the wild 
tribes of South Italy. With Minos 
and his navy away a force crossed to 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



Crete; a last stand in the North 
Bastion by the king's son with the 
royal bodyguard could do no more 
than prolong the struggle and the 
palace was in the hands of the 
invaders. They wandered through 
the corridors and gazed on the fres- 
coes that showed the whole range of 
Cretan life; they seized any portable 
treasure they could find till at last 
some hand set fire to the wooden 
timbers and the palace of Minos was 
destroyed 1 . 




D.K.M 

FIG. 6. TYPES ON CRETAN COINS 

(a) MINOTAUR. FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM 

(b) LABYRINTH. ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM, 

TORONTO 

It is with the palace as it stood in 
the 16th century that we are here 
concerned. The main plan and some 
of the structure dated to the Middle 
Minoan period, but there were exten- 
sive reconstructions after the second 
great earthquake. The building 

occupied an area about 165 yards 
square; in parts at any rate it attained 
a height of at least three storeys. 
The most noticeable feature of the 
plan is a courtyard in the centre, its 
long axis running north and south. 
To this there were two entrances; 
that on the north was the only 
fortified part of the palace, being 
guarded by a system of bastions. 
Another entrance to the south-west 
was always unfortified, although the 



^his is a recent reconstruction by Mr. 
Burn of Oxford University, England. The 
evidence for the details is not, however, 
absolutely certain. 



long and winding corridor along which 
it passed would probably have been 
sufficient defence against a raid or 
riot. The peaceful aspect of the 
palace is indeed one of its most 
noticeable features and shows how 
completely the Minoan kings depend- 
ed on the command of the sea. Not 
till the Roman empire do we again 
find unfortified towns on the Aegean 
coasts; once the central power had 
been destroyed there were always 
enemy cities or bands of ' 'broken 
men" to bring ruin to those who dwelt 
by the sea. Minos, secure in an 
invincible navy, need fear no attack; 
but once the fleet was lost the palace 
fell an easy prey. 

West of the courtyard were the 
public reception rooms and store- 
rooms and several chapels, where was 
celebrated the worship of the Double 
Axe, the most sacred symbol of the 
Cretans. It is one of the very few 
objects for which we know the Cnos- 
sian word; this survived in Lydia in 
the form "labrys" and is the same as 
the root of the word "labyrinth" 
which appears to have meant ori- 
ginally merely "House of the Double 
Axe"; but to the Greek conqueror the 
winding corridors and many storeys 
of the palace appeared to have been 
designed on purpose to lead the steps 
of a fugitive astray. Thus to the 
Greeks labyrinth meant a maze, a 
meaning which it has retained ever 
since. Double Axes appear affixed to 
the walls of Cretan shrines and as 
symbols upon the walls of the palace; 
we possess to-day many specimens of 
votive and ceremonial double axes, 
an example in the collection being 
here reproduced (fig. 7). So famous 
was the symbol that it spread to 
Northern Europe and was perhaps 
there used as a form of currency; 
small double axes have been found as 
far away as France and Belgium. 
Of the cult of the Double Axe we 
naturally know little: Sir Arthur 
Evans supposes that it was connected 
with a ceremonial evocation of de- 
parted spirits. 



C» 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



Of the Domestic quarter on the 
east side of the courtyard, the most 
impressive surviving feature is the 
grand staircase (fig. 8). The charred 
timbers of this structure had been 
preserved in situ by the decomposition 
of the softer materials composing the 
upper storeys of the palace, and by 
replacing them in ferro-concrete and 
occasionally raising fallen blocks of 
stone to the original level it was 
possible for the excavators to restore 
five flights to their original position. 
One or two of the lower rooms have 
been redecorated in order to restore 
the appearance of the royal living 
rooms as they were in the time of 
Minos. "Restorations" have an un- 
savoury reputation ; but in the present 
case they have preserved structures 
which would otherwise have been 
destroyed and the circumstances of 
the original finding have been care- 



fully recorded. The main reception- 
room in this quarter was called by the 
excavators the Hall of the Double 
Axes from the frequency with which 
that symbol appeared on its walls. 
It contained the remains of a wooden 
throne and was perhaps used for the 
discussion of ordinary affairs of state, 
whereas the "Room of the Throne", 
on the other side of the palace, 
appears to have been employed for 
religious ceremonies. 

Of the life of the Cretans during the 
Late Bronze Age we have a wonderful 
series of illustrations in the frescoes 
which adorned the palace walls. 
Occasionally these are merely decora- 
tive; in one place a sponge was 
dabbed on at regular intervals, pro- 
ducing an effect which forcibly recalls 
the roses on a modern wall-paper. 
Others show marine plants or crea- 
tures of the sea or scenes from nature 






FIG. 7. DOUBLE AXE FROM CRETE, IN THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM, TORONTO 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 




FIG. 8. THE GRAND STAIRCASE AT CNOSSOS 

Evans, Palace of Minos, I, fig. 248 












FIG. 9. DESIGN ON A GOLD CUP FROM VAPHEIO, GREECE 

Evans, Palace of Minos, III, fig. 123a 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



such as a cat stalking pheasants. 
But a large number illustrate the life 
of the court at this period: boys 
gathering flowers, the king's cup- 
bearer or the Royal Bodyguard of 
Nubian blacks and its Minoan com- 
mander. Of especial interest in 
connection with the Toronto statuette 
are the "bull-fights", of which we 
have several representations. The 
sport appears to have originated in 
the capture by herdsmen of wild bulls 
and such scenes appear frequently; 
the finest example is the pair of gold 
cups with repousse ornament found 
at Vapheio in the Peloponnese. The 
design on one of these is reproduced 
in fig. 9. The bulls have been driven 
by beaters into a rocky glen where 
their way is blocked by ropes stretched 
across the path. In the centre of the 
scene a bull has become entangled in 
the barrier; his attitude, though im- 
possibly contorted, admirably ex- 
presses the frantic struggles of the 
captured beast. On the right a bull 
has seen the obstacle in time and, 
warned by the fate of his comrade, 
has turned and is galloping away; the 
bull on the left has cleared the barrier 
and already has thrown one of his 
hunters, who falls helplessly to the 
earth. But as he pauses in his charge 
a girl has thrown herself at him and 
locked both arms and legs about his 
horns so that he cannot gore her 
while her weight threatens to bring 
him down and even break his neck. 
Feats of this character probably had 
a strictly practical origin; it was 
necessary for the herdsman to capture 
wild bulls and an animal that turned 
on its enemies might have to be 
destroyed. The method of destruction 
may have been an accident, invented 
in a moment of desperate need. But 
once discovered it became a regular 
tour de force of the Minoan herdsmen 
and doubtless bulls were often cap- 
tured for the sole reason of giving 
distinguished performers a chance of 
displaying their skill. Soon the feat 
came to the ears of Minos. Perhaps 
the royal household travelled to some 



lonely valley to witness the first 
"command performance"; perhaps 
curiosity led them to demand an 
exhibition nearer home. In any case 
displays of "bull baiting" came to be 
held near the city, on a site where it 
was convenient for the Queen and her 
ladies to watch them (fig. 10). We do 
not know where the performances 
were held, for the theatral area near 
the palace is too small to have con- 
tained a charging bull and was prob- 
ably used for exhibitions of boxing 
and dancing. Under the city influence 
the character of the performance was 
changed : but before discussing this 
alteration it is worth tracing the 
subsequent history of this early 
"Rodeo". For the sport survived in 
Thessaly in classical times, although 
the Thessalians used horses for the 
pursuit of the bull; springing from 
the saddle they seized the bull by the 
horns and by a violent twist were 
even known to succeed in breaking 
his neck. Under the early empire 
these sports were introduced into the 
circus programme at Rome; from 
there they were probably imported 
into Spain to survive till to-day in a 
degraded form. The comparison 

between the Minoan and the Spanish 
performance is greatly to the ad- 
vantage of the former. Although the 
excitement of a dangerous sport must 
have appealed at any rate to a section 
of the Minoan audience, the show 
always appears to have been regarded 
as an exhibition of athletic skill; and, 
if we may judge from the richness of 
the costumes of the jumpers, one in 
which even the noblest of Cretan 
youths were proud to take part. 
Moreover the performers were not 
protected by the massacre of aged 
horses, nor was the life of the bull 
himself sought, while the display 
appears to have had a religious 
sanction, for it was held in honour of 
the Mother Goddess. 

It has been said that the object of 
the Minoan performer was not to kill 
the bull, as it was in the case on the 
Vapheio Cup and in the Thessalian 



9 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 




FIG. IO. MINOAN LADIES WATCHING A PERFORMANCE. 
PART OF A FRESCO AT CNOSSOS, RESTORED 

Evans, Palace of Minos, III, fig. 30 




FIG. II. DIAGRAM TO ILLUSTRATE BULL-LEAPING 

Evans, Palace of Minos, III, fig. 156 



10 



KJLLETTN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



sport. When the scene of the exhibi- 
tion was transferred from remote glens 
in inaccessible mountains to the city 
a still more sensational performance 
was offered to the Minoan public. 




FIG. 12. BRONZE FIGURINE OF A BOY LEAPING 
OVER A BULL 

Evans, Palace of Minos, III, fig. 155 

The athlete stood in front of the 
charging bull and grasped his horns; 
he was tossed into the air, turned a 
somersault, landed on the animal's 
back, and was finally caught by a 
comrade standing behind the bull 
(figs. 11 and 12). Experts in steer 
wrestling have pronounced this feat 
impossible, but an even more startling 
performance was given in Mexico city 
in 1895, when the athlete placed his 
foot on the lowered head of a gallop- 
ing bull and turned a somersault 
clean over the animal's back. It is 
clear, however, that the Minoan 
performance was a dangerous one 
from the many representations of 
fallen athletes. One of these scenes, 
reproduced in fig. 13, shows the bull 
goring a performer who has failed to 
catch the horns. 

In the scene on the Yapheio cup the 
successful performer is a girl, and in 
the representations of leaping athletes 
girls are depicted as frequently as 
young men (fig. 14). It was clearly 
impossible for them to take part as 
long as they wore the full flounced 
skirt of Minoan ladies; and possibly, 
owing to the ritual character which 
the sport appears to have assumed, 



their dress was assimilated to that 
worn by the boys. This costume is 
the peculiar form of loin cloth which 
is well illustrated by the Toronto 
figurine. But the athletes are shown 
by their slight pectoral development 
to have been quite young girls; the 
full breasts of the Toronto figurine 
and the elaborate bodice which sup- 
ports them mark her out as a more 
matronly figure than these; nor is the 
position of her hands really identical 
with that of a girl about to catch a 
comrade. Sir Arthur Evans has 

therefore suggested that she is the 
Mother Goddess who has descended 
to the arena; she has assumed the 
dress of her votaries to identify herself 
as their protectress and from her out- 
stretched arms casts a blessing on 
those who risked their lives in her 
honour. 

It can scarcely be doubted that 
these frescoes show for us the origin 
of the story of the Minotaur. It is 
quite possible that towards the end 
of the period of Cretan rule captives 
were imported from the mainland to 




G. 13. DESIGN ON A STONE CUP, SHOWING 
ATHLETE GORED BY BULL 

Restored drawing after Evans, Palace of 
Minos, III, fig. 157 



be trained to perform against the 
il Bull of Minos" — which is all that the 
word Minotaur originally meant. 
Resentment at this may well have 
been the final motive for the Greek 



11 



BULLETIN* OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



attack on Cnossos. But whereas to 
the Greeks Crete was merely a dim 
memory, a story that had been retold 
for thirty generations, for us the 
triumph of the spade has made the 
palace of Minos a reality known not 



from legends but from the objects 
themselves; we can actually walk 
through the labyrinth, handle the 
objects that Minos used and see his 
daily life reconstructed upon the walls. 

C. R. W. 



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FIG. I4. FRESCO SHOWING BULL-LEAPING 

Evans, Palace of Minos, III, fig. 144 



12 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 




The Museum has also acquired 
recently two other important objects 
dating to the Late Bronze Age. The 
pillar lamp of steatite, from Tylissos 
in Crete, is in the form of a column of 
the regular Minoan shape, 14^4 
inches high, and tapering slightly 
from top to bottom; in the top is a 
shallow depression which was filled 
with oil. A groove on either side 
leads from the reservoir to the edge 
of the capital; wicks were placed in 
these and lighted. There is a lug on 
either side of the capital to make the 
lamp easier to carry. The lamp dates 
to the end of the Middle Minoan 
period; similar lamps were found in 
the palace at Cnossos. 

The Late Minoan spear-head was 
found near Cnossos. It is a tapering 
spike, 113/2 inches long, of square 
section with a hollow socket for the 
insertion of the shaft, which was kept 
in place by a rivet. The spear-head 
in its original form was evidently too 
light in the head, and the owner 
added a large lump of lead around 
the socket to give additional weight. 
The shape is a very rare one, but is 
paralleled by a spear-head from 
Ialysus in Rhodes, now in the British 
Museum. C. R. W. 



PILLAR LAMP 
MIDDLE MINOAN PERIOD 




3#' 




LATE MINOAN BRONZE SPEAR-HEAD 



13 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 




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ARCHITECT S DRAWING OF THE MAIN ENTRANCE OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM 



14 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



On the first of March, the Royal 
Ontario Museum will be closed for a 
number of months. The whole of the 
collections will be turned into the new 
building, while the temporary floors 
that were built into the original build- 
ing are taken up and the permanent 
ones put down in their place. A very 
much increased wall space will be 
given by a few changes of internal 
walls, and a change will be made in 
the heating arrangement. 

When the new building is opened, 
there will be seventy galleries devoted 
to art and archaeology. The bottom 
floor will be given up to savage 
American art. The whole of the 
second floor will be devoted to Euro- 



pean art since the time of Christ, with 
the exception of one gallery for 
Chinese material and the great 
Chinese court, which will contain a 
large Ming tomb with the animals 
and arches of the approach. The 
third floor will show the material 
from the Mediterranean civilizations 
to the fall of the Roman Empire, and 
the fourth floor will contain the 
collections of Asiatic art. The 

majority of the galleries will be thirty 
by forty feet or thirty by sixty, 
though a number of them will be 
much larger, such as the armour 
gallery, which is one hundred and 
twenty by sixty feet. 

C. T. C. 



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ARCHITECT S DRAWING OF THE EASTERN FACADE OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM 



15 



ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM 
OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



Corner of Bloor Street and Avenue Road 



Director — Professor C. T. Currelly, 
O.Medj., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.C.,F.R.G.S. 

Keeper of the Classical Collection — 
Professor C. R. Wason, B.A. 

Keeper of the Ethnographical Collec- 
tion — Professor T. F. McIlwraith, 
M.A., Cantab., F.R.A.I. 

Lecturer and Guide — Miss Ruth M. 
Home, M.A. 

Honorary Keeper of European Prints 
and Drawings — Dr. H. M. Tovell. 

The Board of Trustees 

J. B. O'Brian, Esq., K.C., Chairman. 
Mrs. H. D. Warren, Vice-Chairman. 
The Honourable George S. Henry, B.A., 

LL.D. 
The Honourable Charles McCrea, K.C., 

M.L.A. 
The Honourable and Reverend Canon 

H. J. Cody, M.A., D.D., LL.D. 
Sir Robert Alexander Falconer, K.C.- 

M.G., D.Litt., D.D., D.C.L. (Oxon.). 
Sir Joseph Flavelle, Bart. 
Colonel A. E. Gooderham, LL.D. 
Sigmund Samuel, Esq. 
Miss Helen Reynar, Secretary to the Board. 



HONORARY TRUSTEE 

Robert Ludwig Mond., F.R.S., 
S.G.S., S.C.S., S.Z.S. 



F.Ph.S., 



Members of the Museum 

Benefactors: 

Patrons, who contribute $10,000 

Fellows in Perpetuity, who con- 
tribute 5,000 

Fellows for Life, who contribute . . 1 ,000 

Friends, who pay annually 500 

Fellows, who pay annually 100 

Life Members (in a single payment) 100 
Sustaining Members, who pay 

annually 25 

Annual Members, who pay annually 10 



Privileges — Patrons and Fellows in Per- 
petuity may arrange to have a member of the 
staff as a guide. 

All members are entitled to the following 
privileges: — - 

A ticket admitting the member, his family, 
and non-resident friends, on Monday, Wed- 
nesday, and Friday. 

All bulletins issued. 

Admission 

The Museum is open from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
all week-days except Christmas Day and the 
morning of New Year's Day. It is also open 
Sunday from 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. 

Admission is free Sunday, Tuesday, Thurs- 
day, and Saturday, and on all public holidays. 
On other days the admission fee is fifteen 
cents. 

University students are admitted without 
charge on presentation of their registration 
cards. 

All classes from the schools, art students, 
and study groups are admitted free. 

Members and those who hold compli- 
mentary tickets are admitted Monday, 
Wednesday and Friday on presentation of 
their tickets. 

Guidance 

Teachers with classes and visitors who 
desire the services of the guide may make 
arrangements through the Secretary of the 
Museum. 



Photographs 



Prints of photographs of objects in the 
Museum may be ordered at the door. 



This bulletin is the eleventh in a series. 
Copies of some of the previous issues may be 
obtained, free, on application to the Depart- 
ment of University Extension, University of 
Toronto, Toronto 5. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS